PF-2 Fluoride Removal Filters
are designed for use
in conjunction with Black Berkey® water purification elements to adsorb the
following unwanted elements found in drinking water. PF-2
elements reduce Arsenic, Fluoride and other heavy metal ions. If you
use white Ceramic (Sterasyl) filters the PF4 filters with similar results mate
up with these filters.
Testing for fluoride
removal was based on 20-30ppm of the fluoride ion in the incoming water at a
flow rate of no more than 3 gpm (11 lpm) per cubic foot of media. Results
showed< 1ppm of the fluoride ion in the filtered water a greater than 95%
reduction. Under optimum conditions, filtered concentrations of less than 50 ppb
were readily achieved this is greater than a 99.75% reduction.
(from the Berkey
water people (Mew Millennium Concepts)
Under normal conditions it is recommended that each set of two PF-2™ elements be
replaced after 1,000 gallons (3,785 liters). The Royal Berkey® system is about
3.25 gallons (12.3 liters) therefore the PF-2™ filters should be replaced after
1,000/3.25 (3,785/12.3) or 307 refills. If the system is refilled about one time
per day, the PF-2™'s should be replaced after 10 months, if the system is
refilled about twice per day, the PF-2™'s should be replaced about every five
months). Actual capacity is dependent on the presence of other competing
contaminants in the source water. High levels of fluoride, arsenic and heavy
metals may reduce the capacity and efficiency of the elements.
"I know of absolutely no, and I mean absolutely no means of prevention that
would save so many lives as simply to stop fluoridation, or don't start it where
it is otherwise going to be started. There you might save 30,000 or 40,000 or
50,000 lives a year, cancer lives. That is an awful lot of lives a year."
Judicial hearing, January 14, 1982
Safe Water Foundation vs. City of Houston
District Court of Texas, Harris County,
151st Judicial District, 805227
What's Wrong With This Picture?
Andreas Schuld © 2000 PFPC
In 1999 the US Center for Disease Control (CDC) released a glowing report on the
fluoridation of public water supplies, citing the procedure as one of the
century's great public health successes.(1)
Ironically, the same report hints that the alleged benefit from fluorides may
not be due to ingestion:
"Fluoride's caries-preventive properties initially were
attributed to changes in enamel during tooth development because of the
association between fluoride and cosmetic changes in enamel and a belief that
fluoride incorporated into enamel during tooth development would result in a
more acid-resistant mineral."
The CDC report then acknowledges new studies which indicate that the effects
are "topical" rather than "systemic."
"However, laboratory and epidemiologic research suggests that
fluoride prevents dental caries predominately after eruption of the tooth into
the mouth, and its actions primarily are topical for both adults and children."
The obvious question is this: How can the CDC consider the addition of fluoride
to public water supplies to be a public health success while admitting at the
same time that fluoride's benefits are not "systemic," in other words, are not
obtained from drinking it?
The truth, now becoming increasingly evident, is that fluoridation and the
proclaimed benefit of fluoride as a way of preventing dental decay is perhaps
the greatest "scientific" fraud ever perpetrated upon an unsuspecting public.
Even worse, the relentless promotion of fluoride as a "dental
benefit" is responsible for the huge neglect in proper assessment of its
toxicity, an issue that has become a major concern for many nations. As there is
no substance as biochemically active in the human organism as fluoride,
excessive total intake of fluoride compounds might well be contributing to many
diseases currently afflicting mankind, particularly those involving thyroid
dysfunction. In the United States, most citizens are kept entirely ignorant of
any adverse effect that might occur from exposure to fluorides. Dental fluorosis,
the first visible sign that fluoride poisoning has occurred, is declared a mere
"cosmetic effect" by the dental profession, although the "biochemical events
which result in dental fluorosis are still unknown."(2,3,4) The quantity of
fluoride needed to prevent caries but avoid dental fluorosis is also unknown.(5)
WHAT IS FLUORIDE?
Fluoride is any combination of elements containing the fluoride ion. In its
elemental form, fluorine is a pale yellow, highly toxic and corrosive gas. In
nature, fluorine is found combined with minerals as fluorides. It is the most
chemically active nonmetallic element of all the elements and also has the most
reactive electro-negative ion. Because of this extreme reactivity, fluorine is
never found in nature as an uncombined element.
Fluorine is a member of group VIIa of the periodic table. It readily displaces
other halogens—such as chlorine, bromine and iodine—from their mineral salts.
With hydrogen it forms hydrogen fluoride gas which, in a water solution, becomes
There was no US commercial production of fluorine before World War II. A
requirement for fluorine in the processing of uranium ores, needed for the
atomic bomb, prompted its manufacture.(6)
Fluorine compounds or fluorides are listed by the US Agency for Toxic Substances
and Disease Registry (ATSDR) as among the top 20 of 275 substances that pose the
most significant threat to human health.(7) In Australia, the National Pollutant
Inventory (NPI) recently considered 400 substances for inclusion on the NPI
reporting list. A risk ranking was given based on health and environmental
hazard identification and human and environmental exposure to the substance.
Some substances were grouped together at the same rank to give a total of 208
ranks. Fluoride compounds were ranked 27th out of the 208 ranks.(8)
Fluorides, hydrogen fluoride and fluorine have been found in at least 130, 19,
and 28 sites, respectively, of 1,334 National Priorities List sites identified
by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).9 Consequently, under the
provisions of the Superfund Act (CRECLA, 1986), a compilation of information
about fluorides, hydrogen fluoride and fluorine and their effects on health was
required. This publication appeared in 1993.(9)
Fluorides are cumulative toxins. The fact that fluorides accumulate in the body
is the reason that US law requires the Surgeon General to set a Maximum
Contaminant Level (MCL) for fluoride content in public water supplies as
determined by the EPA. This requirement is specifically aimed at avoiding a
condition known as Crippling Skeletal Fluorosis (CSF), a disease thought to
progress through three stages. The MCL, designed to prevent only the third and
crippling stage of this disease, is set at 4ppm or 4mg per liter. It is assumed
that people will retain half of this amount (2mg), and therefore 4mg per liter
is deemed "safe." Yet a daily dose of 2-8mg is known to cause the third
crippling stage of CSF.(10,11)
In 1998 EPA scientists, whose job and legal duty it is to set the Maximum
Contaminant Level, declared that this 4ppm level was set fraudulently by outside
forces in a decision that omitted 90 percent of the data showing the mutagenic
properties of fluoride.(12)
The Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, 5th Edition
(1984) gives lead a toxicity rating of 3 to 4 (3 = moderately toxic, 4 = very
toxic) and the EPA has set 0.015 ppm as the MCL for lead in drinking water—with
a goal of 0.0ppm. The toxicity rating for fluoride is 4, yet the MCL for
fluoride is currently set at 4.0ppm, over 250 times the permissible level for
In 1939 a dentist named H. Trendley Dean, working for the U.S.
Public Health Service, examined water from 345 communities in Texas. Dean
determined that high concentrations of fluoride in the water in these areas
corresponded to a high incidence of mottled teeth. This explained why dentists
in the area found mottled teeth in so many of their patients. Dean also claimed
that there was a lower incidence of dental cavities in communities having about
1 ppm fluoride in the water supply. Among the native residents of these areas
about 10 percent developed the very mildest forms of mottled enamel ("dental
fluorosis"), which Dean and others described as "beautiful white teeth."
Dean's report led to the initiation of artificial fluoridation of drinking water
at 1part-per-million (ppm) in order to supply the "optimal dose" of 1mg fluoride
per day—assuming that drinking four glasses of water every day would duplicate
Dean's "optimal" intake for most people. Now, according to the American Dental
Association, all people, rich or poor, could have "beautiful white teeth" and be
free of caries at the same time. After all, the benefits of water fluoridation
had been documented "beyond any doubt."(13)
When other scientists investigated Dean's data, they did not
reach the same conclusions. In fact, Dean had engaged in "selective use of
data," using findings from 21 cities that supported his case while completely
disregarding data from 272 other locations that did not show a correlation.(14)
In court cases Dean was forced to admit under oath that his data were
invalid.(15) In 1957 he had to admit at AMA hearings that even waters containing
a mere 0.1ppm (0.1 mg/l) could cause dental fluorosis, the first visible sign of
fluoride overdose.(16) Moreover, there is not one single double-blind study to
indicate that fluoridation is effective in reducing cavities.(17)
SO WHAT'S THE TRUTH ABOUT TOOTH DECAY?
The truth is that more and more evidence shows that fluorides and dental
fluorosis are actually associated with increased tooth decay. The most
comprehensive US review was carried out by the National Institute of Dental
Research on 39,000 school children aged 5-17 years.(18) It showed no significant
differences in terms of DMF (decayed, missing and filled teeth). What it did
show was that high decay cities (66.5-87.5 percent) have 9.34 percent more decay
in the children who drink fluoridated water. Furthermore, a 5.4 percent increase
in students with decay was observed when 1 ppm fluoride was added to the water
supply. Nine fluoridated cities with high decay had 10 percent more decay than
nine equivalent non-fluoridated cities.
The world's largest study on dental caries, which looked at
400,000 students, revealed that decay increased 27 percent with a 1ppm fluoride
increase in drinking water.(19) In Japan, fluoridation caused decay increases of
7 percent in 22,000 students,(20) while in the US a decay increase of 43 percent
occurred in 29,000 students when 1ppm fluoride was added to drinking water.(21)
DENTAL FLUOROSIS: A "COSMETIC" DEFECT?
Dental fluorosis is a condition caused by an excessive intake of fluorides,
characterized mainly by mottling of the enamel (which starts as "white spots"),
although the bones and virtually every organ might also be affected due to
fluoride's known anti-thyroid characteristics. Dental fluorosis can only occur
during the stage of enamel formation and is therefore a sign that an overdose of
fluoride has occurred in a child during that period.
Dental fluorosis has been described as a subsurface enamel hypomineralization,
with porosity of the tooth positively correlated with the degree of fluorosis.(22)
It is characterized by diffuse opacities and under-mineralized enamel. Although
identical enamel defects occur in cases of thyroid dysfunction, the dental
profession describes the defect as merely "cosmetic" when it is caused by
exposure to fluoride.
What is now becoming apparent is that this "cosmetic" defect actually
predisposes to tooth decay. In 1988 Duncan (23) stated that hypoplastic defects
have a strong potential to become carious. In 1989, Silberman,(24) evaluating
the same data of Head Start children in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas,
wrote that "preliminary data indicate that the presence of primary canine
hypoplasia [enamel defects] may result in an increased potential for the tooth
becoming carious." In 1996 Li (25) wrote that children with enamel hypoplasia
demonstrated a significantly higher caries experience than those who did not
have such defects and, further, that the "presence of enamel hypoplasia may be a
predisposing factor for initiation and progression of dental caries, and a
predictor of high caries susceptibility in a community." In 1996 Ellwood &
O'Mullane (26) stated that "developmental enamel defects may be useful markers
of caries susceptibility, which should be considered in the risk-benefit
assessment for use of fluoride."
Currently up to 80 percent of US children suffer from some degree of dental
fluorosis, while in Canada the figure is up to 71 percent. A prevalence of 80.9
percent was reported in children 12-14 years old in Augusta, Georgia, the
highest prevalence yet reported in an "optimally" fluoridated community in the
United States. Moderate-to-severe fluorosis was found in 14 percent of the
Before the push for fluoridation began, the dental profession
recognized that fluorides were not beneficial but detrimental to dental health.
In 1944, the Journal of the American Dental Association reported: "With 1.6 to 4
ppm fluoride in the water, 50 percent or more past age 24 have false teeth
because of fluoride damage to their own."(28)
THE WONDER NUTRIENT?
On countless internet sites, fluoride is proclaimed as the "wonder nutrient,"
the "deficiency" symptom being increased dental caries.29 It boggles the mind
that a cumulative toxin and toxic waste product can be described a "nutrient."
Nevertheless, such claims are repeatedly made by pro-fluoridationists.(30)
On March 16, 1979, the FDA deleted paragraphs 105.3(c) and
105.85(d)(4) of Federal Register documents which had classified fluorine, among
other substances, as "essential" or "probably essential." Since that time,
nowhere in the Federal Regulations is fluoride classified as "essential" or
"probably essential." These deletions were the immediate result of 1978 Court
deliberations.(31) No essential function for fluoride has ever been proven in
"NATURE THOUGHT OF IT FIRST"
A popular slogan employed by the ADA and other pro-fluoridation organizations
is, "Nature thought of it first!" The slogan creates the impression that the
fluoridation compounds used in water fluoridation are the same as those
discovered many years ago in the water in some areas of the US.(37) The fluoride
compound in "naturally" fluoridated waters is calcium fluoride. Sodium fluoride,
a common fluoridation agent, dissolves easily in water, but calcium fluoride
Animal studies performed by Kick and others in 1935 revealed that
sodium fluoride was much more toxic than calcium fluoride.(38) Even worse
toxicity was recorded for hydrofluorosilicic acid, the compound now used in over
90 percent of fluoridation programs. Hydrofluorosilicic acid is a direct
byproduct of pollution scrubbers used in the phosphate fertilizer and aluminum
industries. Our government adds it to water supplies even though it is also
involved in getting rid of its own stockpile of fluoride compounds left over
from years and years of stockpiling fluorides for use in the process of refining
uranium for nuclear power and weapons.(39)
In the Kick study, less than 2 percent of calcium fluoride was absorbed and this
was excreted quantitatively in the urine. But even calcium fluoride is not
benign. As the animals given calcium fluoride also developed mottled teeth, it
was clear that such compounds could produce changes on the teeth merely by
passing through the body, and not by being "stored in a tooth" or anywhere else.
No calcium fluoride was retained.
In 1946 Samuel Chase, one of the authors of the Kick study,
became president of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR).
This organization promoted the idea that only the fluoride ion in the various
fluoridation compounds was of importance. Yet he well knew that sodium fluoride
did not behave like calcium fluoride. Unlike calcium fluoride, sodium fluoride
was retained in great amounts in the body and was very toxic. Rock phosphate and
hydro-fluorosilicic acid experiments yielded the same information.
New areas with "natural" fluoride are appearing all over the world, as now all
areas not "artificially" fluoridated are considered "natural." The problem is
that this "natural" fluoride is the result of direct water and soil
contamination from petrochemical land treatment, uncontrolled fertilizer use,
pesticide applications, ground water contamination from industrial waste sites,
rocket fuel "burial grounds," and so forth. Suddenly we have "natural" fluorides
showing up in areas previously deemed "fluoride deficient", such as in Sosnivka,
It is well established that it is TOTAL fluoride intake from ALL sources which
must be considered for any adverse health effect evaluation.(40,41,42) This
includes intake by ingestion, inhalation and absorption through the skin. In
1971, the World Health Organization (WHO) stated: "In the assessment of the
safety of a water supply with respect to the fluoride concentration, the total
daily fluoride intake by the individual must be considered."(41) Exposure to
airborne fluorides from many diverse manufacturing processes—pesticide
applications, phosphate fertilizer production, aluminum smelting, uranium
enrichment facilities, coal-burning and nuclear power plants, incinerators,
glass etching, petroleum refining and vehicle emissions—can be considerable.
In addition, many people consume fluorine-based medications such as Prozac,
which greatly adds to fluoride's anti-thyroid effects. ALL fluoride
compounds—organic and inorganic—have been shown to exert anti-thyroid effects,
often potentiating fluoride effects many fold.(43)
Household exposures to fluorides can occur with the use of Teflon pans,
fluorine-based products, insecticides sprays and even residual airborne
fluorides from fluoridated drinking water. Decision-makers at 3M Corporation
recently announced a phase-out of Scotchgard products after discovering that the
product's primary ingredient—a fluorinated compound called perfluorooctanyl
(PFOS)--was found in all tested blood bank examinations.(44) 3M's research
showed that the substance had strong tendencies to persist and bioaccumulate in
animal and human tissue.
In 1991 the US Public Health Service issued a report stating that the range in
total daily fluoride intake from water, dental products, beverages and food
items exceeded 6.5 milligrams daily.(42) Thus, the total intake from those
sources alone already greatly exceeds the levels known to cause the third stage
of skeletal fluorosis.
Besides fluoridated water and toothpaste, many foods contain high
levels of fluoride compounds due to pesticide applications. One of the worse
offenders is grapes.(45) Grape juice was found to contain more than 6.8 ppm
fluoride. The EPA estimates total fluoride intake from pesticide residues on
food and fluoridated drinking water alone to be 0.095 mg/kg/day, meaning a
person weighing 70 kg takes in more than 6.65 mg per day.(45b) Soy infant
formula is high in both fluoride and aluminum, far surpassing the "optimal" dose
(46,47) and has been shown to be a significant risk factor in dental fluorosis.(48)
In their drive to fluoridate the public water supplies, dental health officials
continue to pretend that no other sources of fluoride exist. This notion becomes
absurd when one looks at the fluoride content in tea. Tea is very high in
fluoride because tea leaves accumulate more fluoride (from pollution of soil and
air) than any other edible plant.(49,50,51) It is well established that fluoride
in tea gets absorbed by the body in a manner similar to the fluoride in drinking
Fluoride content in tea has risen dramatically over the last 20 years due to
industry contamination. Recent analyses have revealed a fluoride content of 22.2
mg per teabag or cup in Chinese green tea, and 17.25 mg of soluble fluoride ions
per teabag or cup in black tea. Aluminum content was also high—over 8 mg. Normal
steeping time is five minutes. The longer a tea bag steeped, the more fluoride
and aluminum were released. After ten minutes, the measurable amounts of
fluoride and aluminum almost doubled.(53)
A website by a pro-fluoridation infant medical group states that a cup of black
tea contains 7.8 mgs of fluoride (54) which is the equivalent amount of fluoride
from 7.8 liters of water in an area fluoridated at the "optimal" concentration
of 1ppm. Some British and African studies from the 1990s showed a daily
fluoride intake of between 5.8 mgs and 9 mgs a day from tea alone.(55, 56, 57)
Tea has been found to be a primary cause of dental fluorosis in many
In Britain, over three-quarters of the population over the age of ten years
consumes three cups of tea per day.(71) Yet the UK government and the British
Dental Association are currently contemplating fluoridation of public water
supplies! In Ireland, average tea consumption is four cups per day and the
drinking water is heavily fluoridated.
Next to water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea can be
found in almost 80 percent of all US households and on any given day, nearly 127
million people—half of all Americans—drink tea.(71)
The high content of both aluminum and fluoride in tea is cause
for great concern as aluminum greatly potentiates fluoride's effects on G
protein activation,(72) the on/off switches involved in cell communication and
of absolute necessity in thyroid hormone function and regulation.
FLUORIDE AND THE THYROID
The recent re-discovery of hundreds of papers dealing with the
use of fluorides in effective anti-thyroid medication poses many questions
demanding answers.(73,74) The enamel defects observed in hypothyroidism are
identical to "dental fluorosis." Endemic fluorosis areas have been shown to be
the same as those affected with iodine deficiency, considered to be the world's
single most important and preventable cause of mental retardation,(75) affecting
740 million people a year, according to the WHO. Iodine deficiency causes brain
disorders, cretinism, miscarriages and goiter, among many other diseases.
Synthroid, the drug most commonly prescribed for hypothyroidism, became the top
selling drug in the US in 1999, according to Scott-Levin's Source Prescription
Audit, clearly indicating that hypothyroidism is a major health problem. Many
more millions are thought to have undiagnosed thyroid problems.
Every year hundreds and thousands of tons of fluorides are
emitted by industry. Industrial emissions of fluoride compounds produce elevated
concentrations in the atmosphere. Hydrogen fluoride can exist as a particle,
dissolving in clouds, fog, rain, dew, or snow. In clouds and moist air it will
travel along the air currents until it is deposited as wet acid deposition (acid
rain, acid fog, etc.) In waterways it readily mixes with water.
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), emitted by the electric power industry, is now among
six greenhouse gases specifically targeted by the international community,
through the Kyoto protocol, for emission reductions to control global warming.
The others are carbon dioxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs),
methane and nitrous oxide (N2O).
SF6 is about 23,900 times more destructive, pound for pound, than carbon dioxide
over the course of 100 years. EPA estimates that some seven-million metric tons
of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) escaped from electric power systems in 1996 alone.
The concentration of SF6 in the atmosphere has reportedly increased by two
orders of magnitude since 1970. Atmospheric models have indicated that the
lifetime of an SF6 molecule in the atmosphere may be over 3000 years.(76)
The ever-increasing fluoride levels in food, water and air pose a
great threat to human health and to the environment as evidenced by the endemic
of fluorosis worldwide. It is of utmost urgency that public health officials
cease promoting fluoride as beneficial to our health and address instead the
issue of its toxicity.
Andreas Schuld is head of Parents of Fluoride Poisoned Children (PFPC),
an organization of parents whose children have been poisoned by excessive
fluoride intake. The group includes educators, artists, scientists, journalists
and authors, lawyers, researchers and nutritionists. It is active in worldwide
efforts to have the toxicity of fluoride properly assessed. For further
information, visit their website at:
I don’t know it these links still work:
Fluoride, Bone and the Thyroid